As we endure a multitude of crises and injustices across the United States, the systemic failure of many of the country’s institutions has become glaringly apparent. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Wildlife Services is one of these failing institutions.
A misnomer, Wildlife Services is anything but helpful to wildlife. Instead, Wildlife Services is a federally-funded wildlife killing program that slaughters native wild animals, almost exclusively at the behest of the livestock industry.
During this time of mass extinction, the killing of over 1 million wild animals annually is not only unjustifiable, it is reckless, particularly when this slaughter involves species that are critical players in delicate ecosystems.
In 2019, alone, Wildlife Services killed approximately 62,000 coyotes, 25,000 beavers, 14,000 prairie dogs (plus 27,000 dens), as well as hundreds of wolves, cougars, bobcats, and many other keystone species that are essential for healthy ecosystems. You can see the astounding level of destruction across the American West by Wildlife Services on our new map.
There are numerous scientifically-proven, cost-effective, nonlethal options for wildlife coexistence. Moreover, nonlethal solutions like range riding and electric fencing have been proven more effective than pre-emptively gunning down thousands of coyotes from an airplane prior to grazing season. Incredibly, even though Wildlife Services has these non-lethal options available, only a small portion of its more than $100 million federal budget is restricted for non-lethal management.
The memorandum directed that rabies housed at the Research Triangle Laboratory be retired.
Justin Goodman, VP of Advocacy and Public Policy at 3-million-member taxpayer watchdog group White Coat Waste Project said in an emailed statement, “We’re proud to have worked with Andrew Wheeler and his colleagues to secure this last-minute pardon for survivors of EPA’s taxpayer-funded animal tests. Mr. Wheeler’s directive to retire the last of the bunnies in the EPA’s taxpayer-funded labs cements his legacy as a policy pioneer who made the once-lofty goal of ending wasteful and cruel taxpayer-funded animal tests a reality. Between this move to retire survivors of EPA animal tests and the agency’s historic decision last year to end all animal testing by 2035, the EPA has set the gold standard that all agencies should aspire to meet under the Biden Administration and beyond. Taxpayers, animal lovers, and liberty lovers in all political parties can unite behind today’s pardon.”
Elate Cosmetics has an ethical supply chain, minimal packaging, and great products.
Published January 25, 2021 01:41PM EST
Elate Cosmetics is a company whose name has been mentioned numerous times on Treehugger, but it hasn’t had the in-depth overview it deserves. Elate is, hands down, my favorite cosmetics company, and has been for years. The fact that it’s Canadian (like me) may have something to do with it, but mostly it’s because Elate takes its commitment to plastic reduction and natural, fair-trade ingredients more seriously than any other cosmetics company I know. It never gets complacent and is always striving to make itself better.
I reached out to founder and CEO Melodie Reynolds to learn more about what makes Elate Cosmetics unique and worthy of Treehugger readers’ attention. Reynolds, who once worked in the corporate beauty world, explained that she left her former career because she was “tired of being told it was impossible to have exceptional production practices, sustainable packaging, and ethical marketing.” Now at the helm of Elate, she is proving it’s all possible.
“I had always viewed myself as a good environmental citizen, but back in 2010 I had an experience where I bought a lipstick product on a whim and, when I got home and unwrapped it, I realized that I had created a small pile of garbage from one product that in the end I didn’t really want anyway. This realization led me to know I could make a difference, and Elate was born.”
That battle against superfluous packaging is at the heart of Elate’s work. It sells palettes made from bamboo (the supplier uses a water-based treatment process so it will eventually biodegrade without contaminating soil) and aluminum-encased magnetic refills of eye colors, pressed foundations, powders, and brow balms that fit into the palettes. The refills come in thin envelopes made of plantable non-invasive seed paper.
Eyeliner and lip color pencils are made of wood harvested from sustainably managed forests with corn-based bioplastic lids. Lip balm comes in glass jars with bamboo lids, and mascara and lip gloss in a bamboo tube with plastic lining that can be separated and recycled after washing.
The company’s packaging is currently 75% waste-free, with a goal to become entirely waste- and plastic-free in the long-term. It has a line called Perfectly Imperfect that sells palettes and and compacts with minor flaws at a discount. These “may include some discoloration of bamboo, dents, scratches, and missing mirrors, varying from piece to piece,” but they still work well. Obviously it’s better for them to be used than discarded, but many companies are afraid to sell anything that doesn’t meet perfect aesthetic standards.
As Reynolds told Treehugger, “We are constantly improving our packaging according to our evolving sustainability mandate as we continue to educate ourselves on what the best choices are for our business and the planet.”
Ingredients are vegan, gluten-free, and 75% organic. Elate states on its website that, when forced to choose between fair-trade or organic certifications, it will always go with fair-trade. Reynolds elaborated on this, explaining that each new addition to the ethical supply chain has to fill out a detailed survey and, when possible, is visited in person.
“When I sent through the survey, which asked questions about things like worker PPE, their wages, and rights, I realized that, even though the ingredient was certified organic, the people that were harvesting the ingredient were being treated poorly. This made me realize that just because an ingredient is organic doesn’t make it better. We are always looking to put people and the planet first. And sometimes it means choosing people over an organic certification.”
Refreshing, too, is Elate’s emphasis on building a capsule beauty kit. Following the model of the capsule wardrobe, which reduces one’s clothing to a minimum while focusing on versatility and quality, it’s possible to do the same with makeup. “Creating a sustainable beauty bag can reduce impulse purchasing that may lead to more waste and buyer’s remorse.” It also makes the application process more enjoyable, when you love everything in your makeup bag and don’t have to sort through all kinds of unwanted products to find what you need.
Demand for sustainable, ethical cosmetics is higher than ever. “Today’s consumer is conscious about the choices that they make,” Reynolds said, “and recognizes that the products that we use every day are … where we have the most opportunity to improve.”
It’s even easier when a brand like Elate Cosmetics shares that consciousness and makes beautiful products that tick all the boxes for ethical production. I’m excited to see where this company goes in years to come.
Please raise your voices on behalf of the elephants shackled with spikes, beaten and tortured in India so they may be treated better and their treatment monitored by an international body even if their freedom can’t be obtained.
The possibility of all of these suffering elephants of India being freed is next to nil. Therefore. we ask for the following:
1) Humane treatment of captive elements
2) Proper census of all captive elephants
3) Periodic monitoring (at least once in 6 months) of all captive elephants by the Government of India and international agencies to ensure these elephants receive proper food, water and medical treatment, are not over worked. Ensure detailed annual reports on these elephants are made publicly available.
Right now, there are thousands of videos depicting the abuse, torture, neglect, or endangerment of innocent, defenseless animals being hosted on YouTube.
Sign the petition and demand that YouTube remove these videos immediately, and vow to do 100% better when it comes to finding and taking down these horrific videos.
Kittens and puppies intentionally placed in dangerous, terrifying circumstances, often with snakes or alligators, just to be “rescued” in the nick of time.
Monkeys locked in cages or wrapped in chains, their human-like faces expressing fear and pain.
Dogs forced to fight each other to the death, or to viciously hunt animals like foxes, ripping them to shreds after sometimes hours of excruciating, exhausting chase.
YouTube is a massively influential site with more than 30 million users per day, and their choice to leave the above content, a total of 2,053 videos, published and gaining views is deplorable.
But YouTube is all about the views. The animal welfare organization Lady Freethinker found these videos in an independent investigation, and they calculated that these videos have a total of 1.2 BILLION VIEWS, meaning the depictions of violence against animals could be worth up to $12 million in advertising revenue for YouTube. Let’s not forget those views also turn into profits for the creators, the people either complicit in or responsible for all this animal cruelty — up to $15 million for these abusers, to be exact. (You can view and sign the Lady Freethinker petition here.)
Shame on YouTube for rewarding violence towards animals instead of using these videos to identify and crack down on abusers. Shame on YouTube for circulating these traumatic videos to their impressionable viewers, and making money from advertising on them.
YouTube and CEO Susan Wojcicki, you have blood on your hands. But the world is watching, and there is still time to make this right.
Sign the petition demanding that YouTube remove every single video listed in the investigation by Lady Freethinker. Then, use the money you earned from animal cruelty to develop systems that quickly and accurately identify these cruel videos, remove them, and flag the users — aka, abusers — for investigation!
In May of 2001, two bottlenose dolphins were languishing in a crude holding pit in the mountains of Santa Lucia Milpas Atlas, Guatemala. Both dolphins – a male named Turbo and a female named Ariel, had been captured from the wild and brought to the mountains by truck fourteen months earlier. Their captors were in the process of training them to perform in shows in the infamous traveling dolphin circus known as Water Land/Mundo Marino, when the Guatemalan environmental organization, MadreSelva, discovered the primitive operation. MadreSelva immediately alerted the authorities and asked them to look into the legality of Water Land´s captive dolphin training camp.
Water Land operates out of Margarita Island in Venezuela. Ruben Roca, the owner of the same traveling dolphin show that had illegally held Cheryl the Russian navy dolphin until her death, abandoned Ariel and Turbo when Guatemalan authorities instigated proceedings against him for their illegal capture.
Roca had left the dolphins in a shallow, stagnant pit, which had been dug with a backhoe. The hole was inserted with a white plastic liner, and a three foot high cement wall topped it off. The dolphin trainers had taken the fish freezer and parts of the filtration system with them when they fled the country in the middle of the night. As a result, the filtration system was not working, and the dolphins were literally living in a cesspool. According to eye witnesses, the pit had originally contained four dolphins. It is presumed that the two missing dolphins, named Sammy and Pinky, were transported to Water Land´s base in Margarita Island.
Ric O’Barry checking on the condition of Ariel and Turbo.
Dolphin Project, which at the time was working with the World Society of the Protection of Animals (WSPA) was initially contacted by Ms. Magali Rey Rosa of MadreSelva. When Ric and Helene O’Barry showed up in the remote mountain location to inspect Water Land´s dolphin training camp on June 1st, they found Ariel and Turbo floating listlessly on the surface of the foul-smelling water.
The dolphins were malnourished and dehydrated, and their skin was discolored from the contaminated water. Rocca’s rented house and the pit he had dug for the dolphins was located at an elevation of more than 6,000 feet. The altitude had played havoc with the dolphins’ health, and they had not eaten in several days.
Ric and Helene set up camp next to the pit and implemented first-aid. The filthy water was pumped out, and the bacteria-ridden liner was scrubbed clean. The pit was refilled with 25 tanker-trucks of fresh city water as well as 2400 pounds of salt. A new heavy duty swimming pool filtration system was installed. They fed the dolphins freshly-caught fish injected with water and electrolytes in order to re-hydrate them.
While Helene and Dr. Juan Carlos Murillo, a WSPA veterinarian, nursed the two dolphins back to health with fresh fish, vitamins and antibiotics, Ric flew to the edge of the Guatemalan jungle by helicopter provided by the Guatemalan Army to search for a site to build a sea pen. An ideal site was chosen when pods of resident bottlenose dolphins were spotted from the air. With the help of the Guatemalan army, a huge sea pen was erected in record time in Graciosa Bay, on the bayside of the Manabique Peninsula.
It took more than five weeks of negotiations between the Guatemalan government, MasdreSelva and WSPA to secure the dolphins´ release. While the negotiations went on, members of the dolphin captivity industry tried to roadblock our efforts. For the dolphins, this was a do-or-die situation: They could not survive in the holding pit much longer.
The authorities finally awarded custody to WSPA, and on July 12th Ariel and Turbo were transported out of the mountains and back to the sea.
The Guatemalan navy provided a truck that would transport the dolphins from Santa Lucia Milpas Altas to the airport in Guatemala City. The dolphin rescue team had received death threats a few days earlier, and police and army personnel escorted the truck the entire way.
From Guatemala City, the dolphins were transported by plane to the naval base in Puerto Barrios. From there, it was just a 20-minute helicopter ride to the awaiting sea pen in Graciosa Bay where, for the first time in over a year, Ariel and Turbo once again experienced real sea water and a spacious environment. Never again would they have to perform tricks in order to be fed. The healing process could begin.
Airlifting Ariel and Turbo to their readaption and release facility ~ with Helene Hesselager O’Barry.
While the remote site at the edge of the Guatemalan jungle was ideal for rehabilitating dolphins, it posed many challenges for the dolphin rescue team. Ric and Helene were dropped off in the jungle with very few supplies, and as they saw the helicopter take off and disappear, they had no idea where they were going to spend the night. Just before dark, they found a small platform that could be used as a camp site. Here, they were safe from panthers, crocodiles, poisonous snakes and the large pack of wild dogs that lived in the area.
A freeze brand is used to create a logo on the dorsal fin for tracking after release.
Ariel and Turbo had only spent a short time in captivity and were perfect candidates for release. They had spent enough time in the wild prior to their capture to know how to survive, which fish to catch and how to avoid predators. Once introduced to the large sea pen, they showed no interest in humans whatsoever, and they had not forgotten how to hunt live prey. They spent most of their time leaping, diving and catching fish in the deep end of the sea pen. A pod of resident bottlenose dolphins entered Graciosa Bay twice a day to hunt for fish and each time visited the sea pen.
Dolphin Rehabilitation Sea Pen
Ariel and Turbo were rehabilitated using the Dolphin Project protocol. On the day of their release back into the wild, they were quickly adopted by the resident pod of bottlenose dolphins. Both Ariel and Turbo were seen together by local fishermen one year later. Turbo was spotted again on January 2003 in the Sarstoon River, which form a portion of the border between Belize and Guatemala. He was swimming with a group of wild dolphins.
Our oceans — and the whales, dolphins and sea turtles that live in them — are choking on plastic trash. We need to turn off the tap on the 8 million metric tons of plastic pollution that enter the ocean each year, and you can play a leading role by eliminating single-use plastic packaging.
Nothing that is used for just a couple of minutes should pollute our rivers and oceans for hundreds of years — especially when we don’t need it. If we’re going to protect ocean ecosystems, we need companies to make bold, concrete commitments to reduce and ultimately eliminate single-use plastic packaging. I’m urging Whole Foods to be a leader once again. Please eliminate all single-use plastic packaging from your operations.
Reverse the Damage the Trump Administration has done to the Migratory Bird Treaty Act
Executive Branch decisions have all but neutralized the Migratory Bird Treaty Act in the last few years, despite a court ruling that its position is against the law and will increase preventable bird deaths. A final blow to the MBTA was dealt by a rule that allows companies and individuals to kill migratory birds as long as “they didn’t mean to1.”
Any industrial activities, including oil waste pits, oil spills, power lines, tailings ponds, and others, will now be exempt from the law1.
This rule comes at a time when scientists have raised alarm over the loss of 3 billion North American birds during the past 50 years. It would end enforcement against incidental take of birds–the predictable and preventable killing of birds by industrial practices–even though last summer a federal judge struck down the Interior Department legal opinion that the new rule seeks to codify2.
The MBTA covers more than 1,000 species, some which are already dwindling to the point of becoming endangered. This measure could lead to billions of bird deaths as they crash into power lines and buildings, or get trapped in oil pits3.
National Audubon Society President David Yarnold said the potential fallout from this decision is largely being ignored at an already trying time in U.S. history.
Birds are being harmed as nesting grounds are destroyed to make way for new developments. In Virginia, 25,000 shorebirds were displaced to make way for a road and tunnel project. State officials had ended conservation measures for the birds after federal officials advised such measures were voluntary under the new interpretation of the law3.
The National Audubon Society and chapters across the country helped pass this bird protection law in 1918. Since then, innumerable species have been saved from extinction. But climate change and habitat destruction have made it even harder to conserve North American bird species. Since 1970 more than 3 billion birds have disappeared, while two-thirds of our bird species are at risk of going extinct4.
Without the MBTA, we could lose many more birds, and if the Trump Administrations’ changes to the MBTA are withheld, we surely will.
Sign the petition below and tell the Administrator of the EPA to restore the MBTA in full, reinstating penalties for companies and individuals who violate this important law.
Dear, Aurelia Skipwith, Director of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service,
Three billion North American birds have vanished since 1970 and many more will soon disappear forever if the Migratory Bird Treaty Act is not restored.
The Audubon Society and many others were responsible for writing the MBTA back in 1918. It’s helped bring many birds back from the brink of extinction. Rule changes administered by the Trump Administration have rendered it ineffective, however.To Top
Laws in this country are a disaster because they always benefit criminals, as in the case of these minors who savagely beat a cat to make a viral challenge to later upload it to social networks to show that they fulfilled it. The four are identified by the Police, but as they are minors it is very likely that they will only receive a scold and then go unpunished, we already know that it is like that because it is always like that in this country.
They threw the poor cat to the ground, hit her with a stick, threw her against a fence and then against the wall, that’s how savage her attack was. Luckily, the cat did not die, but everyone knows that several cats have disappeared lately and others have appeared dead, so it is suspected of these people, that it would not be surprising that they have done it before with those animals.
We ask the corresponding authorities to comply with the Animal Abuse Law, these acts cannot go unpunished because they are minors.
Conviction in Santa Fe for squashing animals for sexual pleasure
This aberration is called Crush fetish and it serves to make these sick people sexually aroused while semi-naked women crush puppies of dogs or cats, and other animals as well. They arrested a man here in Santa Fe who hired women to crush animals and filmed them. The videos were also uploaded to the Internet, so imagine that this sick person is not the only one who gets turned on by this.
This man has to end up in jail, it cannot be that in this country no one goes to prison for animal abuse. Please, animal associations and people who love animals, we want the Justice in this country to judge and condemn these people because it is the only way for this to end.
This happened in Misiones and these girls uploaded the video to social networks, poking a dog’s eyes with a stick and laughing, and even though they are minors, this is intolerable and we ask that the full weight of the Law be applied to them. These girls tomorrow are killers of people, that’s how all murderers begin, torturing and murdering animals, it is a sign and we must do something.
They are both identified, they are sisters, and I hope that the Argentine Justice will give a signal to all and apply the Sarmiento Law to these two torturers and potential murderers, let’s not allow them to go unpunished because they are minors!
I believe that people who mistreat animals deserve effective prison sentences, no fines or no suspended jail or anything, that they go to prison, that they learn that animals should not be mistreated in any way. This person from San Juan forced his dog to drink alcohol and recorded it and uploaded it to his social networks, because we already know that these people, in addition to being bad, are stupid because they always leave evidence of their crimes as seen in the video in which one of them takes the animal by the head, opens its mouth and makes it drink fernet.
Many people do not know but if one gives alcohol to an animal they can suffer serious health problems and even die because they cannot process the alcohol and go into an ethyl coma and then die.
It is known who these criminals are and I hope that the San Juan Prosecutor’s Office will take action on the matter and initiate a criminal case for violation of the Sarmiento Law and sentence them to effective prison terms.
Under the hashtag #NOTOANIMALABUSE, YouTube offers many videos of extremely harmful, sadistic, psychopathic, cruel and harmful content towards different animal species. With a special inclination towards cats and dogs. What is achieved in this way is exactly the opposite. That the torture of an animal becomes a mode of entertainment, morbid and enjoyment as visualization content.
Videos such as the one offered by the Gatinhitoluz channel with explicit mutilations must be left out of the entertainment content offered by the platform. Because to fight against animal abuse it is not necessary to propagandize the perpetrators of these crimes or be a partner and an accomplice as YOUTUBE does. Can you help them? Can we help them?
“I don’t like the other side,” White told PEOPLE. “The positive side is a lot more fun.”
White was born on January 17, 1922, in Oak Park, Illinois. She initially wanted to be a forest ranger, but women weren’t allowed to enter the field at the time.
Decades later, White sort of fulfilled her dream when the U.S. Forest Service made her an honorary first ranger at 88 years old.
Although unable to pursue her desired path, White eventually found success in radio and television. She continues to enjoy an illustrious career spanning over eight decades and counting, winning five Emmy Awards and playing memorable TV roles that endeared her to the nation.
White is widely known for her role as Sue Ann Nivens on “The Mary Tyler Moore Show” and the good-natured Rose Nylund in “The Golden Girls.” She has also appeared in countless talk shows and game shows.
As one of the true pioneers in the entertainment industry, White has become a national treasure so loved and admired by her colleagues and fans.
The years have been definitely kind to her, and White is just grateful.
“I am blessed with good health, so turning 99 is no different than turning 98,” she said.
When asked what keeps her forever young, she had a simple explanation.
“A sense of humor,” she said. “Don’t take yourself too seriously. You can lie to others — not that I would — but you cannot lie to yourself.”Wikimedia Commons
White will have a quiet birthday this year because of the coronavirus pandemic. But although COVID-19 has spoiled her plans to run a mile, the energetic actress has found something better to do.
Speaking with Entertainment Tonight, White said she is “working on getting ‘The Pet Set’ re-released” on her birthday.
White hosted the 1971 show, which had 31 episodes and featured celebrities such as Doris Day, Carol Burnett, and Della Reese with their pets – bears, cougars, elephants, gorillas, kangaroos, tigers and zebras – you name it. They talked about all things animals—including wildlife preservation—in the weekly program.
“Betty White’s Pet Set” will be re-released on streaming platforms and DVD on February 23, just in time for its 50th anniversary.
The star has been a long-standing advocate for animals and a staunch supporter of several organizations that aim to protect them. In fact, part of her birthday plans also includes “feeding the two ducks who come to visit me every day.”Wikimedia Commons
A representative for White said she is staying home to protect herself from contracting the deadly virus. No one is allowed in her home “except those who must.”
But once life gets back to normal, White said she is looking forward to “visiting with close friends and bringing food to my animal friends.”
In May, her publicist also said that she is keeping busy and doing well amid the quarantine.
“The animal community is watching over her,” the rep said. “The virus is afraid of Betty!”
White will officially be a centenarian next year, and her simple advice to living a good, long life and staying forever young is this:
“Again, having a sense of humor,” she said. “Just looking at the positive side and not dwelling on the downside. Takes up too much energy being negative. Also having a good agent who keeps me busy all the time.”
Wise words from the legend herself; we’re definitely taking notes. Happy birthday, Betty White!
Be sure to check the freezer if you might have Weis ice cream.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has shared a recall from Weis Markets, recalling more than 11,000 containers of ice cream. The frozen treats may be contaminated with “extraneous material, specifically metal filling equipment parts,” which is not a traditional ice cream topping.
The company has recalled 10,869 containers of Weis Quality Cookies and Cream Ice Cream in 48-ounce containers, as well as 502 bulk units of Klein’s Vanilla Dairy Ice Cream in three-gallon containers. The ice cream may be contaminated with foreign matter which is, obviously, a choking hazard.
The recall notice says there has been one report of someone finding an “intact piece of metal equipment” in their ice cream. There is concern that more containers may have been contaminated as well.
The ice cream was sold at 197 Weis Markets stores in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, New Jersey, New York, Delaware, and West Virginia. The vanilla bulk ice cream packages are not available for retail sale, so you probably don’t have that sitting in your fridge. For the average shopper, there’s just the single product that you want to look out for. The Cookies and Cream ice cream has a sell-by date of October 28, 2021, which can be found near the bottom of the container.
Two other types of ice cream were packaged on the same date, but the announcement says all units were stored in a warehouse and never distributed. Be sure to return that package for a refund if you’ve got it in the freezer. You can also call Weis Markets’ customer service line with questions.
SAFETY WARNING: Luyuan Youth ATVs do not meet mandatory safety standards for vehicles intended for kids under 10, posing a risk of high-speed crash and serious injury or death to young children. Immediately stop using all Luyuan Youth ATVs: https://t.co/m3GntS56KMpic.twitter.com/tNVwnBjmrO
Footage from yesterday (Jan. 14, 2021) when a pod of striped dolphins was driven into the cove. In panic, several dolphins crashed into the rocks, turning water red as they were injured and bled. Take action: https://t.co/BkupXmhEip Coverage in collab with Dolphin Project & LIA pic.twitter.com/WdVvUIJhCp
“He that takes truth for his guide, and duty for his end, may safely trust to God’s providence to lead him aright.” - Blaise Pascal. "There is but one straight course, and that is to seek truth and pursue it steadily" – George Washington letter to Edmund Randolph — 1795. We live in a “post-truth” world. According to the dictionary, “post-truth” means, “relating to or denoting circumstances in which objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief.” Simply put, we now live in a culture that seems to value experience and emotion more than truth. Truth will never go away no matter how hard one might wish. Going beyond the MSM idealogical opinion/bias and their low information tabloid reality show news with a distractional superficial focus on entertainment, sensationalism, emotionalism and activist reporting – this blogs goal is to, in some small way, put a plug in the broken dam of truth and save as many as possible from the consequences—temporal and eternal. "The further a society drifts from truth, the more it will hate those who speak it." – George Orwell “There are two ways to be fooled. One is to believe what isn’t true; the other is to refuse to believe what is true.” ― Soren Kierkegaard