Premarin Horses: How many does it take to make a billion dollars? Part 2

Tuesday's Horse


So let’s get started. Be warned ahead of time that this estimate is very rudimentary and relies heavily on averages and interpolation of information collected from various sources.

There are three main estrogens (along with other minor estrogen analogues), collectively referred to as CEEs [conjugated equine estrogens], found in Premarin® and its daughter products such as Prempro®, Premphase® and the new osteo-menopausal combination drug Duavee®:

(1) estrone sulfate;
(2) sodium equilin sulfate and;
(3) 17α-dihydroequilenin sulfate.

CEEs are isolated from urine via a solid phase extraction process followed by either HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) or TLC (thin layer chromatography) on silica gel – both methods give good results with over 97% recoveries.

Ranges of the concentrations measured during the collection period were given as:

Estrone sulfate: 0.8 – 6.4 mg/L
Sodium equilin sulfate: 0.4 – 3.2 mg/L
17α-dihydroequilenin sulfate: 0.3 – 2.4 mg/L


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